Queen Elizabeth’s Eight Ordinary Footmen

Queen Elizabeth's spectacular signature

One of the spectacular representations of British royalty we are honored to offer in October comes in the form of a centuries-old document, hand-written and signed by one of Britain’s most beloved and revered leaders, Queen Elizabeth I. Besides her majesty’s flowing, grandiose signature – which, in and of itself, makes this document invaluable – the entirety of the order is written in her hand, detailing what seems to be a very ordinary order…and is. But the story this commonplace document tells holds its own historical weight. Addressed to her life-long Keeper of the Great Wardrobe, John Fortesque, who would have been accustomed to receiving such orders from the Queen, as he served her highness from her days as a princess until she passed away in 1603, Elizabeth orders to be delivered to each “of our eight ordinary footmen” two and one-half yards “of Crymson Velvett for there ordenary runnying coattes, and also to paie for lynynge makinge and emborderinge of the said Coates,” naming the eight recipients as Richard Clarke, James Russell, John Reade, Thomas Harvye, Francis Broughton, Edmond Ducke, John Jordan, and Brian Morrison. These footmen, although labeled “ordinary,” were anything but, as it was their charge to push the Queen’s royal triumphal chair through her many public appearances and processions.

Queen Elizabeth Going in Procession to Blackfriars in 1600

According to Roy Strong’s account, “The Cult of Elizabeth,” the ordinary footmen were distinctly dressed in lavish uniforms bearing the royal colors, including, “black skullcaps and crimson tunics embroidered with gold…jerkins with sleeves of crimson velvet with ‘our letters before and behind having the crown embroidered over the said letters’ and velvet nightcaps…” As Strong examines Elizabethan art in his study, he presents the legendary depiction, Queen Elizabeth Going in Procession to Blackfriars in 1600, in which these very uniforms can be seen on the footmen immediately behind the Queen, pushing Elizabeth “along from behind on some sort of triumphal car with a chair of state upon it.” Strong takes this imagery as evidence of an “Elizabethan version of an a l’antique triumph,” much in the same vain as the entry of Alfonso the Great into Naples in 1443. In “The Progresses and Public Processions of Queen Elizabeth,” John Nichols presents correspondence from a Sir William Cecill, Chancellor of Cambridge, dated July 12, 1564, providing details regarding what would come to be known as ‘The Grand Reception and Entertainment of Queen Elizabeth at Cambridge, 1564,’ stating that she intended to “come thither, wishing him to provide lodgings, and such Academical Exercises for her Entertainment as may be most agreeable to her…about the eight of August next. Recalling the date on the document we possess in-house, July 17, 1564, this timeline would connect the need for fresh uniforms to her trip to Cambridge. The “Queen Majestie” arrived at King’s College on the 5th of August to great pomp and circumstance, and one can only presume, her footmen in full, royal attire.

Is it not truly amazing what can be learned from connecting the historical dots, based on a simple order for ordinary running coats? This document comes to us from a time of royal splendor, grandiose processions, and an era when our leaders were still carried, by hand, under triumphal canopies, making their political station – and supreme power – unquestionable.

Lincoln Manuscript Collection Debuts at $1,650,000

Two top dealers in American historic documents, Seth Kaller, Inc. and University Archives, debuted The Unique Abraham Lincoln, an collection of iconic Lincoln documents, at the New York Antiquarian Book Fair on April 7, 2011. Offered at $1,650,000, the collection contains a number of important and fascinating Lincoln pieces, highlighted by:

  • A unique leaf from Lincoln’s homemade Sum Book, his earliest surviving manuscript. Here, as a boy, Lincoln teaches himself the rules of compound interest;
  • Two unique pages from Lincoln’s final draft of his last State of the Union message, written less than five months before his assassination;
  • The Lincoln Family copy of his inaugural addresses, messages to Congress, Emancipation Proclamation, and other key Lincoln documents.

“Lincoln’s writing has long been the most sought after of any president,” said Seth Kaller, “and iconic Lincoln items are especially coveted. Despite the financial crisis, new auction records were set for Lincoln documents in each of the last three years.” Kaller called this collection “the most important Lincoln group I have ever had the privilege of offering at one time.” Kaller has handled the manuscript of Lincoln’s “House Divided” speech, signed copies of the Emancipation Proclamation, and other notable Lincoln documents.


Lincoln’s Earliest Surviving Manuscript

Written by Lincoln as a teenager, his Sum Book is a powerful testament to the roots of the future president’s greatness: tenacious drive, unremitting enterprise, and a limitless thirst for knowledge. Lincoln’s handwritten “Compound Interest” calculations cover both sides of the tattered leaf.

“We don’t usually think about Lincoln’s financial side,” Kaller points out. “But these compound interest exercises taught him a fundamental principal of investment. This was critical to Lincoln’s later success in confronting the economic complexities of the Civil War.”

Life in frontier Indiana was primitive and public education virtually nonexistent when young Abe created the Sum Book to teach himself math and finance in 1824-1826. His stepmother, Sarah Bush Johnston Lincoln, later recalled that when paper was unavailable, Lincoln would write his calculations on a board. When that became too black, “he would shave it off with a drawing knife and go on again.” Lincoln eventually put together his Sum Book from paper obtained by cousin Dennis Hanks. It was preserved by Sarah and discovered after the war by William Herndon, his biographer and former law partner. The Library of Congress considers its leaf a rare and significant “American Treasure.”

Of the eleven known Lincoln Sum Book leaves (paper with writing on both sides), nine are now in museum and library collections. A tenth, in private hands, is not expected to ever return to the market. This leaf hasn’t been offered since 1953, and may be the last opportunity for a collector to acquire a document from Lincoln’s youth.


The two pages capture the heart of Lincoln’s December 6, 1864 Annual Message to Congress: that the Union will win the war and America will emerge a stronger nation. Lincoln was assassinated less than five months later, just short of seeing his vision realized.

Only a portion of Lincoln’s autograph manuscript is believed to have been saved by the printer. Just one other complete page (at Brown University) and five fragmented pages (most in institutions) are known to survive. These two pages descended in the family of William Dole, Lincoln’s commissioner of Indian Affairs, before being separated in the 1940s – 1950s. They are now reunited after more than half a century.

“The text of Lincoln’s message is readily available,” Kaller noted, “but these original manuscripts do more than just convey the text. In Lincoln’s cutting and pasting a paragraph he had written earlier, we see him taking an idea and using it where it would have the greatest effect. This captures Lincoln holding these pages, in the act of creation.”


This unique book contains the preliminary and final Emancipation Proclamations, and Lincoln’s inaugural addresses and annual messages to Congress, including his 1864 State of the Union address, as well as other key presidential documents.

These messages were gathered together and specially bound after Lincoln’s second inauguration. The president may have given them directly to his son. The book is signed by Robert Todd Lincoln, who identifies the contents as “All Messages & Inaug. Addresses ‘Letters & Proclamations.’” It was handed down through the Lincoln family, until the 1980s, to the last direct descendant, Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith.

Several of the printings contained in the book are rare first editions, and bound together they are unique. Only one similar book has been identified: a copy owned by Lincoln secretary John Hay, now in the John Hay Library at Brown University. But the Lincoln family copy contains four titles the Hay copy lacks: the 1863 and 1864 annual messages, the “Arrangements” for the second inauguration, and the second inaugural address (“With malice toward none; with charity for all…”), one of the most valuable and sought-after Lincoln imprints.

For more information, go to www.sethkaller.net; email info@sethkaller.net, or call 914-289-1776.

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